The Land Surface Models (LSM) and Hydrology Working Group is working on improving the representation of the land surface processes, including the flow of water, in the UFS. The land surface forms the lower boundary of the weather and climate forecast models, and determines the flow of moisture, energy, and other matter (gasses, particulates, etc.) to and from the atmosphere. Hydrology deals with the movement of water at and below the land surface. With respect to forecast skill, predictability from the land comes from soil moisture, snow cover, and vegetation phenology (the timing of leaf out and leaf senescence), all of which can significantly impact surface fluxes, boundary-layer development, and thus interaction with the atmosphere. Furthermore, since humans live at the Earth’s surface, what happens there is of direct impact on our day to day activities. For example water at the surface, either too much or too little, is both a hazard (floods) or resource (e.g. agriculture). The other major component of the Earth’s surface, our oceans and seas, are considered by the Marine Working Group.